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Napoleon's Hundred Days and the Politics of Legitimacy
Anglo-Spanish War. Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Slaget vid Poitiers. Slaget vid Cannae. Battle of Rorke's Drift. Battle of Poitiers. Battle of Nagashino. Primera batalla de Bull Run. Battle of Stamford Bridge. Battle of Hastings. Spanish Armada. Battle of Culloden. Slaget vid Culloden. First Battle of Bull Run. Battle of Chickamauga. Unternehmen Zitadelle. How do series work? Series: Osprey Campaign Series by cover 1—7 of next show all. Normandy : Allied landings and breakout by Stephen Badsey. France Blitzkrieg in the West by Alan Shepperd. He left for Italy in Mar.
Assuming command of an ill-supplied army, he succeeded within a short time in transforming it into a first-class fighting force. The brilliant success of his Italian campaign was based on three factors: his supply system, which he made virtually independent of the financially exhausted Directory by allowing the troops to live off the land; his reliance on speed and massed surprise attacks by small but compact units against the Austrian forces; and his influence over the morale of his soldiers.
Napoleon swept across N Italy, forcing Sardinia to sign a separate peace in May, After the great victories of Arcole Nov. However, the slow advance of the northern French armies in Germany and the danger of being cut off in the rear caused him to arrange—without instructions from Paris—the truce of Leoben Apr. It marked the end of the early phases of the French Revolutionary Wars. Now the idol of half of Europe, Bonaparte returned to France.
His plan for an invasion of Britain across the channel was canceled, and he made alternative plans to crush the British Empire by striking at Egypt and, ultimately, at India. The most famous of Britain's naval heroes, he is commemorated by the celebrated Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square, London. Shortly after landing at Aboukir Abu Qir , he won a brilliant victory over the Mamluks in the battle of the Pyramids July, His successes, however, were made useless when the French fleet was utterly destroyed Aug.
The Ottoman Empire, of which Egypt was a province, declared war on France. A French expedition to Syria was repelled at Acre. Meanwhile, in Europe matters were going from bad to worse for the French. They were expelled from Italy by the forces of the Second Coalition see French Revolutionary Wars French Revolutionary Wars, wars occurring in the era of the French Revolution and the beginning of the Napoleonic era, the decade of — The wars began as an effort to defend the Revolution and developed into wars of conquest under the empire.
The Directory was overthrown by the coup of 18 Brumaire Brumaire , second month of the French Revolutionary calendar. The coup of 18 actually 18—19 Brumaire Nov. The autocratic constitution of the year VIII was accepted by plebiscite. In effect, the constitution established the dictatorship of Bonaparte. Napoleon declared that France had finished with the "romance of the revolution.
However they were appointed, not elected, and strict obedience was enforced. Bonaparte's administrative reforms established an efficient modern state that was capable of effectively mobilizing its resources and afforded him vast patronage powers. He established the Bank of France. Napoleon took the initiative in negotiating this agreement; he recognized that reconciliation with the church was politic. He thereby neutralized the antirevolutionary priests who had encouraged peasant unrest see Chouans Chouans [Norman Fr. Church property was not restored, but church unity and status were reestablished in return for stricter submission to civil authorities.
The work of J. While establishing the regime at home, Napoleon also dealt with France's enemies , crossing the St. Bernard pass and defeating June 14 the Austrians at Marengo, Italy. It is generally regarded as marking the end of the French Revolutionary Wars and setting the stage for the Napoleonic Wars see Napoleon I. Napoleon's ambition did not rest. In Aug. In the same year he incorporated Piedmont into France. In Sept. Switzerland , and the Netherlands as well as his refusal to arrange a commercial treaty with Great Britain aroused British distrust. In May, , Britain again declared war on France.
Napoleon built up his army, apparently preparing to invade England, but the invasion fleet he assembled —5 was repeatedly struck by storms, and a major part of the French fleet was engaged in the disastrous expedition of Charles Leclerc Leclerc, Charles Victor Emmanuel , —, French general. He served under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign, married Pauline Bonaparte, and took part in Napoleon's coup of 18 Brumaire In he commanded the French expedition to Portugal. While warfare languished, Napoleon took advantage of the plot of Georges Cadoudal Cadoudal, Georges , —, French royalist conspirator.
He fled to England in after the failure of an attempted assassination of Napoleon Bonaparte. Confirmation by a plebiscite was a foregone conclusion, and on Dec. An imperial court and a nobility were created. The constitution of the year XII retained the features of the previous two constitutions, but its liberal provisions were gradually restricted. Napoleon crushed the Austrians at Ulm, occupied Vienna, and won Dec.
An agricultural center, the town has sugar refineries and cotton mills.
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It became a seat of the Anabaptists in At Austerlitz, in the "battle of the three emperors," Napoleon I won Dec. Austria, with the harsh Treaty of Pressburg Dec. Prussia, which entered the coalition late in , was thoroughly defeated Oct. British sea power, however, had grown stronger than ever through Nelson's victory at Trafalgar Trafalgar, battle of , naval engagement fought off Cape Trafalgar on the SW coast of Spain on Oct.
His Continental System Continental System, scheme of action adopted by Napoleon I in his economic warfare with England from to Economic warfare had been carried on before , but the system itself was initiated by the Berlin Decree, which claimed that the British blockade of purely Orders in council, first so named in the 18th cent.
On land, warfare with Russia continued. The indecisive battle at Eylau Feb. Its German name was Eylau or Preussisch Eylau. It is a rail terminus and has meat-processing and dairy industries. The town was founded in In Feb. It is a rail junction, a river port, and an industrial and commercial center in an agricultural area.
Sweden was defeated in with the help of Russia. With only Britain left in the field, Napoleon was now master of the Continent. The whole map of Europe was rearranged. The states of Germany had already been altered by the Confederation of the Rhine Confederation of the Rhine, league of German states formed by Emperor Napoleon I in after his defeat of the Austrians at Austerlitz.
He left his theological studies to enter the army and fought in Egypt under Napoleon, whom he helped in the coup of 18 Brumaire. Bernadotte rose from the ranks, served brilliantly under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign —97 , was French Cesena; successor of Pius VI, who had created him cardinal in He conducted himself ably during the period of the French Revolution, showing sympathy for the social aims of the Napoleon secured an annulment of his marriage with Josephine, who was unable to bear him a child, and was married in Mar.
Great Britain had never submitted, and the Continental System proved difficult to enforce. Origin and Occupation Despite his epilepsy, he was the ablest Austrian commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; however, he was handicapped by unwise decisions imposed on him from Vienna.
Everywhere forces were gathering to cast off the Napoleonic yoke. Napoleon's decision to invade Russia marked the turning point of his career. It is an industrial and horticultural center and a rail junction. Industries include metalworking and the manufacture of electrical apparatus, shoes, and clothing. When the czar rejected the Continental System, which was ruinous to Russia's economy, Napoleon gathered the largest army Europe had ever seen. He fought against the Polish Confederation of Bar see Bar, Confederation of and served in the Russo-Turkish Wars of —74 and —92, in which he lost an eye.
After the indecisive battle of Borodino Sept. On Sept. With his troops decimated, his prospective winter quarters burned down, his supply line overextended, and the Russian countryside and grain stores empty, Napoleon, after sending an unsuccessful feeler to the czar for peace, began his fateful retreat on Oct. After the passage of that river, secured at a terrible sacrifice, the retreat became a rout.
In December Napoleon left his army, returning to Paris to bolster French forces. Of his allies, Prussia was the first to desert; a Prussian truce with the czar Dec. Great Britain and Sweden joined the coalition, followed Aug. At the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig Leipzig , city pop. Economy One of Germany's major industrial, commercial, and transportation centers, it has many rail lines and two airports.
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In November the allies offered Napoleon peace if France would return to her natural boundaries, the Rhine and the Alps. Napoleon rejected the offer, and the allies continued their advance. They closed in on Paris, which fell to them on Mar. Napoleon abdicated, first in favor of his son and then unconditionally Apr.
He was exiled to Elba, which the allies gave him as a sovereign principality. In the course of a triumphant march northward he once more rallied France behind him. The Hundred Days are counted from Mar. Attempting to reconstruct the empire, Napoleon liberalized the constitution, but his efforts were cut short when warfare began again.
Napoleon was utterly crushed in the Waterloo campaign Waterloo campaign, last action of the Napoleonic Wars, ending with the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon I, who escaped from Elba in Feb. June 12— He again abdicated and surrendered himself to a British warship, hoping to find asylum in England. Instead he was shipped as a prisoner of war to the lonely island of Saint Helena Saint Helena , island, 47 sq mi sq km , in the S Atlantic Ocean, 1, mi 1, km W of Africa.
Together with the islands of Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, it comprises the British overseas territory of St. Helena est. The capital and port is Jamestown. He fought with credit throughout the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and served —21 as governor of St. Helena and custodian of Napoleon I. Napoleon's remains were ordered to be returned to France by Louis Philippe in and were entombed under the dome of the Invalides in Paris.
Early Life Estimates of Napoleon's place in history differ widely. He was beyond doubt one of the greatest military leaders in history and dominated his times so completely that European history between and is commonly described as the Napoleonic era. But his legacy is mixed. Napoleon promoted the growth of the modern state through his administrative and legal reforms, and his changes in the map of Europe stimulated movements for national unification.
A teacher in the schools of the Oratorian order, he joined the French Revolution and was elected to the Convention More or less apocryphal sayings and anecdotes illustrating Napoleon's character and manners are as innumerable as the books written about him. See Napoleon's memoirs, dictated to E. He accompanied Napoleon into exile to St.
Helena, where the emperor dictated a part of his memoirs to him. See also biographies by V. Cronin , F. McLynn , A. Schom , P. Johnson , P. Dwyer 2 vol. Roberts ; P. Herold , G. Lefebvre 2 vol. Tulard , A. Horne , L.