He understood the fast-food concept immediately. But why did it take six years for an entrepreneur to understand the concept? Why did the great majority of restaurateurs continue to ofer poor service at higher prices? Molok is a vertical container, partly hidden underground— only 40 percent of the container is visible. Because the new bin is partly underground, there is no odor. Why was this simple innovation not introduced until the s?
Why has it met considerable resistance? Here, too, the general principle is simple. Sulfur contained in the ore enhances the fuel eiciency for smelting. Why did they ignore what they knew? Every industry has examples like these. What are some examples from your industry, of good ideas that were ignored when irst introduced? Use the exercise, Table 1.
Copies of workbooks and tables are available from www. Why does it take years or decades for so many excellent solutions to be used, even though they are urgently needed and the technology is available? Closer examination reveals, how- ever, that these answers do not help much. Imagine that all inventors become good salespeople, have the support of management, and have excellent presentation skills and materials. How can the inventor, product developer, or management know what idea is worth promoting? Companies have often used excellent sales skills to support outdated products.
National Cash Register continued to advertise electromechanical cash registers in the s when the development of electronics had already made them obsolete. It is trivial to say that inventors should be able to get their new ideas accepted. How can they know what idea is really new and better than the old technology?
What about prejudices? Would the result be better if experts and managers were less prejudiced and more creative? It is true that the inventor should be open to new ideas and criticism. Every idea needs a champion who can ight stubbornly against resistance and indiference.
How can inventors know when to accept ideas or criticism and when to reject them? Again, the content of the idea is important. One must select a good solution from many ideas, some good and some bad. How can we select the best solution? Is it best for our customer? Best for our business?
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Is it the most interesting technology? We propose a simple reason for the rejection of good ideas: people reject good solutions and invest in bad ones because they do not know the diference between them. Looking at cases of lost opportunities and great losses for business and society, people can take one of two positions: 1. With hindsight, it is easy to see that often very good ideas are rejected and resources lost to bad ones. Obviously it is not possible to know whether the idea is good or bad when it is irst proposed. Because the same patterns are repeated, we can learn from the past.
For example, the statement from a participant of a TRIZ class conducted by one of the present authors names are removed, the rest is cited verbatim : A sad but true testimony to the power of TRIZ. In one of our TRIZ sessions that you conducted at XXX, we identiied the use of water, transformed into steam, as a method for foaming an adhesive. A patent was recently issued to one of our com- petitors for a process of foaming an adhesive with water vapor. By working with the TRIZ concepts, you will learn to apply them to your problems, to develop good solutions, and to select the best solutions from all that are proposed.
A good solution resolves the contradiction that is the cause of the problem. So, a system increases ideality when it gives you more of what you want or less of what you do not want, does it at a lower cost, and usually with less complexity. Unseen, idle resources of the system are used to reach these seemingly incompati- ble goals. All ive examples of resistance to new technology illustrate clearly these con- cepts of overcoming contradictions, increasing ideality, and using resources: 1.
Penicillin resolved a typical contradiction of drugs: substances that can kill microbes destroy healthy tissues, too. Mold, present everywhere, was used for resolving contradiction.
How combinations of TRIZ tools are used in companies – results of a cluster analysis
Increasing ideality: many important diseases, earlier considered totally hopeless, were easily cured by penicillin. Collar made as part of the tube: there is no separate T-itting. Ideality increases: one joint is less complicated, requires less material, and uses less labor than three. Fast-food restaurant: there are no waiters, but, at the same time, all customers have their own waiter, that is, they serve themselves.
Resource: a customer. Increasing ideality: better and quicker service. A bin for garbage should be big and at the same time small. A partly under- ground container is big in available volume and small the part you see. Flash smelting resolves a contradiction: much energy is needed and energy should not be used at all. Sulfur in the ore is an easily available energy resource. Contradictions are solved. Idle resources are used. Solving contradictions by using resources makes the system ideal.
We can describe the movement from the problem to the solution by a simple diagram Figure 1.
Simplified Triz: New Problem-Solving Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing Professionals
A simple scheme Figure 1. However, they can be easily divided into two groups: Figure 1. Solving contradictions by using resources makes the system more ideal. The transition from the old way of working to the new. Many attempts have been undertaken to overcome the weaknesses of the rationalized model. Many creative techniques have been ofered. In this model, people naturally have imagination and creativity. External control is not the only means for getting good results. So criticism and control are minimized or prohibited.
Fantasy, feeling, play, intuition, and pleasure are encouraged. Many ideas are gen- erated. Soon, however, most proposals turn out to be the repetition of old inven- tions. Sometimes really good ideas are developed, but they are not recognized due to the lack of evaluation criteria see examples in the beginning of this section. Christopher Freeman3 has characterized demand-pull theory and science-push theory as two poles in the debate on the determinants of innovation.
Disappointment in the soft approach causes organizations to return to the hard model. And so on. Inven- tive methodologies in industry seem to oscillate perpetually between hard and soft models. Both ways are blind alleys. Both are unsatisfactory. Such methods include: n Quality Function Deployment QFD : Identiies the voice of the customer and helps the organization understand where creative ideas are needed. Six Sigma integrates many methods of problem identiication and analysis, but it took until for some organizations that teach Six Sigma to begin incorporating TRIZ to get good solutions to the problems that were identiied.
A new approach, neither hard nor soft, but incorporating the beneits of both views, has become necessary. It is not a mechanical sum of traditional ways to think. It is the TRIZ system of understanding the problem, modeling the contradictions, removing them by using resources, and improving the ideality of the system, not relying on intuition. It relies on knowledge of the system being improved and on knowledge of the systematic method for improvement. TRIZ is based on more than 50 years of research, but it is new to most of the industrial world.
Increasing consciousness of the weakness of traditional approaches has increased interest in TRIZ. A simple comparison illustrates the approaches. Runners can increase their speed using physical and mental exercises. A coach can manage runners using the hard or soft way: compel them to do structured exercises or give them freedom to run however they want. Both methods have been used to increase speed and certain methods work better with certain runners. A diferent way is to say that the goal is to go fast and to provide the runners with vehicles: bicycles, cars, planes, and boats.
Now the main point is not diferences between people, but diferences between tools and everyone can go fast. TRIZ ofers vehicles for moving to better ideas, solutions, and innova- tions. Trial-and-error method is the oldest way of seeking ideas. Hard and soft models are two popular attempts to make work more effective. Scientifically managed problem solving combines the strengths of both approaches with the theory of TRIZ. All four approaches we have considered are presented in a simple schematic drawing Figure 1. If you model your own experience, it will give this framework more meaning for you.
Start by illing in a description of the methods that your organization has used for problem solving and for stimulating innovation. If you have gone back and forth from one method to another, draw arrows on the table to show the path. To promote ideas, you should know which solutions are worthy of being promoted. TRIZ is the theory that provides the basis for this model of successful problem solving. Foster, R. McGregor, D. Freeman, C.
References 1 Chapter 1. Shockley, W. Clarify the Tradeoff behind a Problem 1.
Simplified TRIZ: New Problem‐Solving Applications for Engineers and Manufacturing Professionals
Homer, The Odyssey, trans. Rieu, E. London: Penguin Books, , — All citations to The Odyssey are to this volume. Lahtinen, M. Holtta, U.
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Patent 5,,, Mann, D. Osborn, A. Describe pairs of tools and objects. Female and male parts b. Pin and a part with a hole 2. Select one pair. Explain why just this tool and object are selected. Pin and a part with a hole.
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The problem, wearing, occurs between a pin and a part. Describe features of the selected system of a tool and an object. Describe conflicts in this system. Features: Dimensions, form, surface properties, manufacturing precision, ease of use, reliability. Conflicts: a. If the pin is made easy to lock and open loose pin , the device gets less reliable. If the pin is made tight, opening and locking get difficult. If the pin is machined very precisely so that it is both more reliable and easy to use, manufacturing gets complex.
Select one pair of conflicting features. Explain why just this tradeoff is selected. We select the first formulation: If the pin is made easy to lock and open loose pin , the device gets less reliable. Describe the tradeoff graphically and in words. Graphically: see Figure 3. If the pin is made easy to lock and open loose pin , the device gets less reliable or wearing gets worse. Two pictures illustrate that the same conflict can be visualized in different ways.
Moving from Tradeoff to Inherent Contradiction 1. Peters, T. Field, S. Altshuller, G. Savransky, S. Mapping of Invsible Reserves 1. Smith, W. Miles, L. Ives, UK: Chambers, , 5. Turrettini, J. Book presents modern TRIZ tools with numerous examples of their applications based on real cases. Insytec B. With examples, explains TRIZ concepts in a logical way, from simple to complex. Might be found somewhat difficult to read due to a large volume of specific information from different areas. Fey, V. Rivin Cambridge University Press. Written for practicing engineers, product managers, technology managers and engineering students, it demonstrates how to use TRIZ tools.
They provide a clear focus on robustness development and technology transfer, which leads to the commercialization activity. It also briefly covers some more advanced tools and describes TRIZ general philosophy. The main value of the book is in numerous examples and case studies from the manufacturing area that will be interesting for TRIZ practitioners. Provides overview of modern TRIZ and its underlying principles. More a collection of papers than a textbook, for advanced reader.